First there are many kind of arrays, in a quite complex forest of options. It seems that the kind of array Unboxed is the one similar to C and more suited for numerical operations that require speed. StorableArray allows to interchange with C, which also is Unboxed.
It is important to think about what its an array: it is something that associate index to values. In basic arrays index has type Int (to undestand it Ix Class but I think that it something complex also). The manual says for example that:
the bounds of a 10-element, zero-origin vector with Int indices would be (0,9), while a 100 by 100 1-origin matrix might have the bounds ((1,1),(100,100)), In many other languages, such bounds would be written in a form like 1:100, 1:100, but the present form fits the type system better, since each bound is of the same type as a general index.
Finally, it seems that internally the ((1,1),(100,100)) are stored in a list of index [(1,1),…,(100,100)]. So internally, the array index 1 corresponds to (1,1), the index 2 corresponds to (1,2) etc…, there is a function named range that helps with it: